Contents

Tobacco was initially used by pre-Columbian Native Americans, who smoked it in pipes and even used it for hallucinogenic purposes in shamanic rituals. Christopher Columbus was given tobacco by natives and introduced it Europe when he returned from North America. However, tobacco did not become widely used in Europe until the middle of the 16th century, when explorers and diplomats such as France's Jean Nicot (for whom nicotine was named) popularized its use.Tobacco wa...

Are There Safe Cigarettes?

Are There Safe Cigarettes?Tobacco was initially used by pre-Columbian Native Americans, who smoked it in pipes and even used it for hallucinogenic purposes in shamanic rituals. Christopher Columbus was given tobacco by natives and introduced it Europe when he returned from North America. However, tobacco did not become widely used in Europe until the middle of the 16th century, when explorers and diplomats such as France's Jean Nicot (for whom nicotine was named) popularized its use.Tobacco was introduced to France in 1556, Portugal in 1558, Spain in 1559, and England in 1565.Initially, tobacco was produced for pipe smoking, chewing and snuff. Cigarettes were made in a crude, hand-rolled form since the early 1600s, but did not become popular in America until after the civil war. Cigarette sales surged with introduction of the cigarette rolling machine by James Bonsack in 1883, in a contest sponsored by tobacco company Allen and Ginter, who promised $75,000 to the first person to invent a fast cigarette-rolling machine. This facilitated industrialized production and widespread distribution of cigarettes.Since then, nicotine addiction has become a public-health concern in virtually every nation on Earth.Warnings about the health risks of smoking were muted until the 1950's and 1960's, when a series of unsuccessful lawsuits forced the issue into the public eye. Not until the 1990's would a lawsuit be won by the plaintiff. However, the American Surgeon General first demanded that warning labels be placed on cigarette packages started in 1966. Both the tar and nicotine in cigarettes are toxins, each its own way; and that's without mentioning the poisonous substances such as arsenic used in the curing process. Nicotine is as addictive as heroin or cocaine, and has long-lasting effects on the brain's dopamine systems. The "tar" which filters attempt to remove falls into four categories of substances: nitrosamines, widely held to be the most carcinogenic of all the agents in tobacco smoke; aldehydes, created by the burning of sugars and cellulose in tobacco; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons which form in the cigarette behind the burning tip; and trace amounts of heavy metals from fertilizers used to grow the plant.Tobacco companies were loath to admit in public that they knew the dangers posed by their product; however, in a sideways concession to tobacco foes, they produced what were advertised as "safer" filtered cigarettes. In the 1958 a scientist working for Philip Morris went so far as to admit publicly that, "Evidence is builing up that heavy smoking contributes to lung cancer." He cleverly suggested that this admission could be turned into a "wealth of ammunition" to attack the competion by suggesting that Philip Morris, unlike its competitors, made cigarettes with filters to screen out the toxins. In 1986 the CEO of British American Tobacco, Patrick Sheehy, had a different opinion, and wrote that, "in attempting to develop a "safe" cigarette you are, by implication, in danger of being interpreted as accepting the current product is unsafe, and this is not a position that I think we should take." However much tobacco executives attempted to hide the dangers of their product from the public, increasing market demand eventually forced all cigarette companies to develop some filter systems for their cigarettes. Filtered cigarettes accounted for only 1 percent of cigarette purchases in 1950, but this had soared to 87 percent by 1975.However, the development of filtered cigarettes met two hurdles, one medical and the other a matter of personal taste. Because smokers are nicotine addicts, they will smoke until their craving for nicotine is satisfied. A filter which removes nicotine will simply prompt them to inhale more deeply or smoke more cigarettes. A filter which removes the tar components of tobacco will remove the taste and smoking sensation to which smokers have become accustomed, and consumers find such a product lacking in "flavor". Due to compensatory behavior by smokers, the amount of toxins consumed is not significantly less than from an unfiltered cigarette, and there is no proof filtered cigarettes are less of health risk. Still, tobacco companies persist in their efforts to develop better filters. Often they are hampered not by lack of technical knowledge but by consumer behavior. In 1975, Brown and Williamson introduced a new cigarette called Fact, with a new filter designed to selectively remove toxic compounds such a cyanide. However the product did not please consumers, and was removed from the market two years later.An internet search for "cigarette filter patent" produces 425,000 results as manufacturers strive to outdo each over in the invention of filter materials and baffles to construct a cigarette which they claim is less toxic but still appealing to smokers. It is difficult to make a filter which removes tar but not nicotine, and tobacco companies have now focused their attention on growing tobacco plants with a higher nicotine content, in order to satisfy smokers' nicotine addiction with proportionately less exposure to tar. Rumors that cigarette companies "spike"their products with extra nicotine have met with public uproar, since cigarettes are sold as a natural agricultural product. Scientists have also experiments with tobacco substitutes , with ingredients such as wood pulp, which would produce smoke flavor with less tar. Legal hurdles have stopped such projects, as they are no longer "natural" but rather an artificially-manufactured substance about which health claims are being made. Such products are treated as drugs, and subject to lengthy regulatory battles before they are allowed to be sold. For the tobacco companies, manipulating naturally-grown tobacco leaf is cheaper and more profitable in a competitive marketplace. Since a cigarette is basically a delivery system for an addictive drug, nicotine, it is theoretically possible to produce a product which has only nicotine, without the diversion of tar. In fact, such a product exists: the nicotine patch. At its most basic level, it has exactly the same function as a cigarette. However, it has less social cachet than the packaging, rituals and paraphenalia associated with smoking: it is for people who want to wean themselves off their addiction.http://www.youwillquit.comhttp://www.life-extension-now.com

Issues on Asthmatic Bronchitis

Issues on Asthmatic Bronchitis

Acute bronchitis is very common among people with respiratory conditions. This type of bronchitis can occur in anyone, at any age. Acute bronchitis usually accompanies flu or cold and in most cases it doesnt need medical treatment. When acute bronchitis is caused by viruses, the illness can clear on itself within a few days. However, more serious forms of "acute bronchitis" may require specific medical treatment. If acute bronchitis is caused by infection with bacteria, an appropriate treatment with antibiotics is required for overcoming the illness.Bronchitis causes inflammation, irritation and obstruction with mucus of the respiratory tract. The majority of patients who suffer from respiratory conditions are diagnosed with bronchitis. Bronchitis can be either acute or chronic. Acute bronchitis generates intense symptoms and evolves rapidly (has a short period of incubation), while chronic bronchitis generates moderate, time recidivating symptoms.If acute bronchitis is caused by viruses, it doesnt require medical treatment and usually ameliorates within a few days. Acute bronchitis generates symptoms like cough, shortness of breath, wheezing, chest soreness when breathing. When patients with acute bronchitis also have moderate or high fever, it is a sign of bacterial infection and therefore medical treatment with antibiotics is required. The presence of yellowish mucus in cough or spit can also point to infection with bacteria. If patients are coughing blood, it is a sign of complication (pneumonia) and immediate medical treatment is required. Acute bronchitis doesnt last more than a few weeks. However, patients with acute bronchitis can sometimes experience an aggravation of their symptoms in time or they can develop chronic bronchitis. Chronic bronchitis is a form of bronchitis that generates less intense symptoms, but the illness can lead to serious complications in time. Unlike acute bronchitis, which can clear on itself in a short period of time, chronic bronchitis persists in time and needs ongoing medical treatment.Acute bronchitis can be very difficult to diagnose. The symptoms it generates are also characteristic to many other respiratory conditions (asthma, allergies, sinusitis). Acute bronchitis can be effectively diagnosed only through the means of elaborate physical examinations and laboratory analyses.If you suffer from acute bronchitis, it is advised to keep away from external irritants (dust, smoke, pollutants, chemicals), as they can aggravate the illness. If you have difficulty breathing, drink plenty of fluids (still mineral water, warm tea) and avoid taking left-over medicines! Self-medication can cause a lot of harm. Antibiotics shouldnt be administered without the doctors permission and children shouldnt take aspirin or anti-inflammatory medicines when suffering from acute bronchitis. Use air humidifiers and maintain a warm temperature in your bedroom. If you are a smoker, stop! Smoking can cause serious damage to the respiratory system and smokers who suffer from bronchitis symptom are also susceptible to developing chronic bronchitis.If the illness doesnt ameliorate within a few days, it is best to see a doctor and follow an appropriate treatment.

What are Kidney Stones?

What are Kidney Stones?

Kidney stones are hard stone-like substance that forms in the kidneys. They may not trouble you as long as they are settled in one or both the kidneys. It is only when a kidney stone moves out of the kidney and enters the ureter (the tube that carries urine) on its way to the bladder that the pain begins. The pain can be from mild to severe depending on the size and shape of the "kidney stone" . The stone can block the flow of urine, and may cause bleeding too. Kidney stone formation is a common occurrence and the stones are so tiny that they pass out with the urine without any hindrance. The larger ones may cause pain and make things miserable before making their way out of the body. A large stone may get stuck in the ureter causing pressure and pain. Chances of infection rise if the stone remains stuck in the ureter for long. This may also lead to damage of the kidneys. Types of Kidney StonesThe crystals in the urine are responsible for kidney stones. When there is an imbalance in the minerals and salts found in the urine, it may lead to their formation. Different types of stones are formed depending on the salts present in the urine.Calcium Stones: These are the most commonly occurring "kidney stones" . 75% to 85% of all kidney stone cases are calcium stone based. These stones comprise of calcium and oxalate, which are introduced to the body through the food we eat. Excessive intake of calcium and oxalate can help form calcium stones. Besides, excessive vitamin D intake, and hyperactive parathyroid glands can also cause kidney stones. Struvite Stones: These stones are not very common and are found mostly in women. The bacteria that cause urinary tract infection are responsible for the production of ammonia. Struvite stones, also known as infection stones, are formed when there is excessive ammonia in the urine.Uric Acid Stones: People who eat meat products in excess run the risk of forming uric acid stones, as meat ingestion leads to production of uric acid, a by-product of protein metabolism. Cystine Stones: These are the least common of all stones and are made from cystine, an amino acid. Cystinuria, a hereditary disorder, is responsible for the formation of cystine stones. Preventing the Formation of Kidney StonesoIf you are prone to kidney stones, or would like to avoid kidney stones in future, the most effective preventive measure is drinking a lot of fluids, especially water. Two to three liters of water a day is enough to flush your kidneys thoroughly of contaminants. oIt would help to learn the type of stones that are formed in the kidneys, and the cause of formation too. You could change your eating habits accordingly and adjust the intake of certain types of salts and minerals that help in the formation of kidney stones. oIf you are prone to calcium stones, you could discuss the matter with your doctor, who may suggest you to lower your calcium intake. Foods that are rich in calcium are milk and milk products, and leafy vegetables. oIf your kidneys have uric acid stones, then reducing your meat, poultry and fish intake will surely help. Your doctor may also prescribe medication to manage the uric acid level in the urine. oPeople, who get struvite stones, could be given antibiotics to help remove bacterial infection.If you have had a [*_*] once, there is always a likelihood of its recurrence. Thus, it would be in your best interest to follow the advice on prevention.

Cholesterol: Information On Cholesterol Levels.

Cholesterol: Information On Cholesterol Levels.

Total cholesterol level can be determined through a simple blood test, and in fact, an at-home test kit is available and can be just as accurate as the standard tests procured in a doctor's office. So how do you know if youre at risk for heart disease or blood clots from cholesterol? The first step is to know your number. In other words, have your cholesterol level checked.240 mg/dL and over People with cholesterol levels over 240mg/dL are at increased risk for heart attack and stroke. If your cholesterol level is 240 mg/dL or greater, consult your doctor and follow his/her advice on lowering that level.200239 mg/dL Consult your doctor. Your doctor will be best equipped to interpret the results and test further for LDL andHDL levels.Less than 200 mg/dL This is where your cholesterol level should be. Even so, to ensure that you have the right balance more HDL than LDL cholesterol you should follow the Guidelines for Healthy Living.Although these levels are important guidelines, they do not give the whole picture they are really just rough guidelines. The LDL cholesterol level is a more important indicator of overall cardiovascular health, but having your cholesterol level checked will not necessarily give you your LDL cholesterol number.LDL LevelsLess then 130 is optimal;130-159 is borderline, increasing your risk for heart disease;160 or greater puts you at greater risk for heart disease.HDL LevelsLess then 40 increases your risk for heart disease;60 or greater decreases your risk.Traditional cholesterol testing is a good indicator for assessing heart disease and stroke risk; however, there are many variables that can not be controlled in this traditional testing, such as genes, race, age and past medical history. A person may appear heart healthy, at a good weight, fit, and eating a balanced diet, and still have unacceptable "cholesterol levels" . On the other hand, another person may have acceptable cholesterol levels even acceptable HDL cholesterol levels and still be at risk for heart disease. There is still much research to be done on cholesterol and our bodies manufacture and control of cholesterol levels.Fortunately, there is another test available, rather than the traditional cholesterol testing, which provides a more in-depth study of cholesterol levels. This is the VAP, or Verticle Auto Profile. This test not only indicates the HDL and LDL cholesterol levels, but also provides an analysis of the many subclasses of cholesterol and it offers a more comprehensive indication of who may be at an increased risk of heart disease. In fact, statistics show that the VAP has a 90% detection rate for persons at risk for heart disease, whereas traditional cholesterol testing may miss up to 60% of the patients at risk! Please see the VAP website for more information on the importance of this test, especially for anyone at risk for heart disease, and for information on taking the VAP.

How To Keep Your Teenagers Smoke-Free

A recent study made on teenage smoking came up with a figure of approximately 4.5 million adolescent smokers in the United States alone. And that everyday, roughly six thousand children below eighteen years of age begin to smoke. Out of that six thousand children, two thousand will grow up to become regular smokers. One survey says that approximately ninety percent of smokers began smoking before they reached the age of twenty-one.To some teenagers, smoking may begin as an innocent experiment, to some it is their own way of expressing rebellion, but it may develop into a lifelong habit that can be difficult to quit. It has been proven that adolescents who regularly smoke have just hard time dropping the habit. And they say that the best way to get kids to stop smoking is to not get them started on the habit in the first place.Here are some tips that can help keep your adolescent children away from the smoking habit:lSeek out the reason. Teenagers have different reason to get into smoking. Some do it just to test what it feels like to smoke, some do it because of peer pressure, some in an attempt to feel cool or independent, some because they want to fit in to a certain group, and some do it because they are rebelling. It may be surprising but some teens smoke in an attempt to lose weight or feel better about themselves. It would be easier to know how to deal with the problem if you know and understand the reason behind it.lJust say no. Telling your kids that smoking is not allowed may be more helpful than you think. A recent study showed that teenagers who thought that their parents would not like to hear of them smoking were less than half as likely to smoke as compared to adolescents who thought their parents didn't mind.lBe a good role model. To make your children believe that smoking is bad, set yourself as a good example. Teen smoking is more common among adolescents who are used to seeing their parents smoke. If you smoke, avoid smoking in front of your children, or don't leave your cigarettes where your children can find them. lTap into your teen's vain side. Although movies may depict smoking as something glamorous and macho, the truth is, it isn't. Remind your teenagers that smoking is a smelly and dirty habit--- it leaves yellow stain on your teeth, stench on your hair and clothes, and bad breath. lDo the math. Smoking is an expensive vice. Show your teens how much smoking costs on a weekly, monthly, or yearly basis. Compare smoking costs to electronic gadgets, clothes, and other teen essentials to make them understand that they can use that money on other important things instead of buying cigarettes.lExplain cigarette addiction clearly. A lot of teenage smokers believe that they can quit anytime they want, but that isn't always true. Teens can become just as addicted to the nicotine in cigarettes as adults do. A recent study shows that of adolescents who've smoked at least a hundred cigarettes, most of them would like to quit but are finding it difficult to do so.lTell your kids what's in store. Inform your children o the long-term consequences of smoking lung cancer, heart attack, and stroke. Not to mention the chronic coughing and other pulmonary tract concerns.The best way to make your kids understand that they should stop smoking is not by giving threats or ultimatums, instead show them that you're concerned about their well-being. Be supportive, encourage them that even if they may find quitting difficult, in the long run, with perseverance and will power, they will be able to quit the habit and live a smoke-free and healthy life.

Get A Massage In Las Vegas

Las Vegas, Nevada is a fantastic, energetic and fun-filled city. Its known as a place with superior entertainment for adults and families alike. Las Vegas is a great place to live or to visit. So, whether your stay in exciting Las Vegas is for a business trip, a fun-filled vacation, or a relocation initiated by your company you might find you want or need a session of massage therapy. Massage in Las Vegas is provided by independent Licensed Massage Therapists, Licensed Massage Establishments, and many outstanding Day Spas.Massage in Las Vegas is an experience that people from all over the U.S. and the world find enjoyable and something they want to repeat over and over again. Whether your goal is to achieve complete relaxation and relieve stress with a slow, soothing massage, relieve muscular pain and chronic tension, have a more comfortable pregnancy, or improve your athletic performance Massage Therapists in Las Vegas can help you achieve your goals. In fact there are several available types of Massage in Las Vegas. The most commonly offered massage techniques in Las Vegas are:Swedish Massage - relaxing massage using gliding strokes, kneading, friction, and striking strokes along with gentle stretching and rocking.Deep Tissue Massage - massage of the deeper musculature and connective tissue to release chronic tension and pain. Its often a firmer massage that is appreciated by experienced clients.Sports Massage - massage to assist the athlete in preparing for and recovering from sports events.Neuromuscular Therapy - advanced pain relief targeting specific trigger points in muscles, tendons, and attachment sites. A great choice if you have muscular pain.Hot Stone Massage - perhaps the most relaxing and luxurious massages you can get. Heated stones seemingly melt away stress and tension.Trigger Point Therapy - targeted pain relief using specific pressure to release painful knots in muscles.Prenatal/Pregnancy Massage - massage for the mother-to-be helping her to decrease pain and discomfort throughout the pregnancy.Lymphatic Drainage Massage - specifically used for decreasing swelling and edema as well as improving the circulation of the bodys lymph. Its detoxifying and some think it improves the immune system too.However, in addition to the most commonly practiced massage therapy techniques your Las Vegas based Massage Therapist might also practice some other well known and highly effective massage therapy techniques:Medical Massage Myofascial Release Craniosacral Therapy Shiatsu Acupressure Ortho-Bionomy Aromatherapy Massage Myoskeletal Alignment Technique You might even want to try a very special massage therapy treat when you get a massage in Las Vegas like Couple's Massage where a couple can receive their massages together in the same massage room with two massage therapists. During the couples massage each member of the couple can actually receive different types of massages to meet their needs. Or, for the true massage therapy enthusiast some Massage Establishments and Day Spas offer Four Hand Massage, Duo, or Tandem Massage, where you can receive therapeutic massage by two massage therapists at the same time.Massage in Las Vegas is also convenient to receive. Massage in Las Vegas is available on an incall basis at a Massage Therapist's office, in a Massage Establishments, or in one of many conveniently located Day Spas. Massage in Las Vegas is also available on an outcall basis in your Las Vegas area home, office, or hotel. No matter where you are in Las Vegas a great massage is only minutes away. So if youre visiting or living in Las Vegas what's stopping you from getting your massage? Massage in Las Vegas is relaxing, stress reducing, pain relieving, and performance improving so get one today...you'll be glad you did!

Summary

Tobacco was initially used by pre-Columbian Native Americans, who smoked it in pipes and even used it for hallucinogenic purposes in shamanic rituals. Christopher Columbus was given tobacco by natives and introduced it Europe when he returned from North America. However, tobacco did not become widely used in Europe until the middle of the 16th century, when explorers and diplomats such as France's Jean Nicot (for whom nicotine was named) popularized its use.Tobacco wa...